Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland.
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Germans killed thousands of Poles, many of them civilian hostages, in Warsaw streets and locations around Warsaw, to terrorize the population, they shot or hanged them.
For administrative purposes the General Government was subdivided into four districts Distrikte. The new German administrative units were much larger than those organized by the Polish government, reflecting the German lack of sufficient administrative personnel to staff smaller units. The five districts were further sub-divided into urban counties Stadtkreise and rural counties Kreishauptmannschaften. Following a decree on September 15, , the names of most of the major cities and their respective counties were renamed based on historical German data or given germanified versions of their Polish and Soviet names if none existed.
At times the previous names remained the same as well i. The districts and counties were as follows:. This decree was to go into effect on 1 April and was nominally accepted by Heinrich Himmler, but Martin Bormann opposed the move, as he simply wanted to see the region turned into Reichsgaue Germany proper. Wilhelm Frick and Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger were also skeptic about the usefulness of this reorganization, resulting in its abolition after subsequent discussions between Himmler and Frank.
The General Government was inhabited by A year later the population increased to In December , Offsetting this was the German genocidal campaign of liquidation of the Polish intelligentsia and other elements considered likely to resist. From disease and hunger also began to reduce the population. Poles were also deported in large numbers to work as forced labor in Germany: In the population was segregated into different groups.
Each group had different rights, food rations, allowed strips in the cities, public transportation and restricted restaurants. They were divided from the most privileged, to the least. After the invasion of Poland in , Jews over the age of 12 and Poles over the age of 14 living in the General Government were subject to forced labor.
Poles weren't able to buy any construction materials to reconstruct their houses or businesses. Former Polish state property was confiscated by the General Government or the Third Reich on the annexed territories. Notable property of Polish individuals ex. Jewish population was deported to the Ghettos , their dwelling and businesses were confiscated by the Germans, small businesses were sometimes passed to the Poles.
German administration implemented a system of exploitation of Jewish and Polish people, which included high taxes. While scholars debate whether from September to June the mass starvation of the Jewish people of Europe was an attempt to conduct mass murder, it is agreed upon that this starvation did kill a large amount of this population. For example, in , seven million tons of coal were used but in this was reduced to four million tons of coal used by the Generalgouvernement.
This shift was emblematic of the shortages in supplies, depriving the Jews and Poles of their only heating source. Although before the war, Poland exported mass quantities of food, in the Generalgouvernement was unable to supply enough food for the country, nonetheless export food supplies. In the expulsion process, the help provided to the evacuated Poles and Jews by the Generalgouvernement was considered a weak branch of the overall process.
During the deportations, people were forced to reside on the trains for days until a place was found for them to stay. Between the cold and lack of food, masses of deportees died due to transport deaths caused by malnutrition, cold, and moreover unlivable transportation conditions. The prices for food outside of ghettos and concentration camps had to be set at a reasonable price in order for them to align with the black market; setting prices at a reasonable rate would ensure that farmers did not sell their crops illegally.
If the prices were set too high in cities there was a concern that workers would not be able to afford the food and protest the prices. Due to the price inflation which was occurring in the Generalgouvernement, many places relied on the barter system exchanging goods for other goods instead of money. While workers in Norway and France protested the new rationing of food, Germany and the UK, where the citizens supported war efforts were more supportive of the rationing therefore it was more effective.
Cases, where a country was being occupied, caused the citizens to be more hesitant about the rationing of food and it was overall not as effective. In August , the Reich decided to decrease the food supply from the Generalgouvernement, deciding that 1. The Food and Agriculture Ministry administered the rations of food in concentration camps.
Once the food arrived at a camp, it was up to the administration how to distribute it. During this environment of food scarcity Jews turned to the black market for any source of sustenance. The black market was important both in and outside of the ghettos from Outside of the ghettos, the black market existed because rations were not high enough for the citizens to remain healthy. In the ghettos of eastern Europe in August the Jewish population recognized that if they were forced to remain in these ghettos they would eventually die of hunger.
Many people that were in ghettos made trades with the outside world in order to stay alive. The isolation of the people forced into ghettos caused there to be a disconnect between the buyer and seller, which added in another player: The black market middleman would make a profit by creating connections between sellers and buyers.
While supply and demand was inelastic in these ghettos, the selling of this food on the blackmarket was extremely competitive, and beyond the reach of most Jews in ghettos. Resistance to the German occupation began almost at once, although there is little terrain in Poland suitable for guerrilla operations. Several small army troops supported by volunteers fought till Spring , e. The main resistance force was the Home Army in Polish: It was formed mainly of the surviving remnants of the pre-War Polish Army , together with many volunteers.
The AK was estimated between , and , men, while the AL was estimated between 14, and 60, In July , as the Soviet armed forces approached Warsaw, the government in exile called for an uprising in the city, so that they could return to a liberated Warsaw and try to prevent a Communist take-over. They used distant Italian bases in their Warsaw airlift instead. After 63 days of fighting the leaders of the rising agreed a conditional surrender with the Wehrmacht.
The 15, remaining Home Army soldiers were granted POW status prior to the agreement, captured rebels were shot , and the remaining civilian population of , expelled. Hans Frank was an avid chess player, so he organized General Government chess tournaments. Only Germans were allowed to perform in sporting events.
About 80 football clubs played in four district divisions. From his own point of view, as an administrative official, the problems in his district included an overdeveloped black market.
He endorsed a remedy in solving the "Jewish question" as fast as possible. The newly drafted Operation Reinhard would be a major step in the systematic liquidation of the Jews in occupied Europe, beginning with those in the General Government. Within months, three top-secret camps were built and equipped with stationary gas chambers disguised as shower rooms, based on Action T4 , solely to efficiently kill thousands of people each day.
The Germans began the elimination of the Jewish population under the guise of "resettlement" in spring of The three Reinhard camps including Treblinka the deadliest of them all had transferable SS staff and almost identical design. The General Government was the location of four of the seven extermination camps of World War II in which the most extreme measures of the Holocaust were carried out, including closely located Majdanek concentration camp , Sobibor extermination camp and Belzec extermination camp.
The genocide of undesired " races ", chiefly millions of Jews from Poland and other countries, was carried out by gassing between and The wall of the Warsaw Ghetto being built under the orders of Dr. Announcement by the Chief of SS and Police 5. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising , April Polish soldiers in action, August 1, Portrait of a Young Man by Raphael , stolen at the behest of Hans Frank in and never returned; one of over 40, works of art robbed from Polish collections.
Polish hostages being blindfolded during preparations for their mass execution in Palmiry , The mass execution of Poles in Bochnia , December 18, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the national-accounting practice, see Central government. Generalplan Ost , Lebensraum , and Wehrbauer. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Polish resistance movement in World War II. The Holocaust in Poland. Giles, Walter Pape Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. Uses authors parameter link. War Land on the Eastern Front: Cambridge University Press, p. Hitler's Table Talk , 5 April Cameron, Norman; Stevens, R.
A Study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich. Cambridge University Press , p. Die okkupationspolitik Nazideutschlands in Polen , p. Retrieved 12 May Himmler's Raumplanung im Osten , pp. Browning 1 May The Origins of the Final Solution.
U of Nebraska Press. Retrieved 4 December NY, NY, , pp — Retrieved May 1, PDF cache archived by WebCite. Secret Intelligence and the Holocaust. Archived from the original on Polish Society Under German Occupation: Nahplan of December Logistics, Limitation, and Lessons ". How the Nazis Ruled Europe.
The Destruction of the European Jews. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 8 February The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Retrieved 24 August States of Nazi Germany. Adriatic Littoral Alpine Foothills. Caucasus Don—Volga Moscow Turkestan. Areas annexed by Nazi Germany. Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experiments.
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