Fire og fyrretyve prever af oldnord, sprog og litt. Ralph Salmi, who served in Tehran during this episode, the analysts stationed in the region could only focus on Soviet intelligence.
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There are current dealings under way in central Asia where large deposits of oil were also found, but since the Caspian is landlocked, pipelines will have to be made to reach the ports in the region: But the pipelines must be made in order to avoid passing through Iran. Compared to other AOR countries, it is easy to notice the relevancy of maintaining dialogue with Iran. Iran is the fourth largest country within the AOR, it is slightly larger than Alaska, with a total land mass of 1, million square kilometers compared to the smallest country in the region, the Seychelles which measure a mere sq.
Iran also boasts the third largest population in the AOR, with 66,, , trailing behind Pakistan ,, and Egypt 69, , Iran since President Rafsanjani has made efforts to diversify their economy so that they are not so oil dependent. Khatami has made the effort but has yet to show any actual gains.
Despite the disapproval of the United States who has labeled Iran as a member of the Axis of Evil for its support of terrorism and for its proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the EU continues to strive to improve relations with Iran. The EU has pursued constructive dialogue with Iran in order to reach an agreement that would boost trade.
But, Iran will need to diversify as mentioned earlier. The need becomes obvious after very little analysis.
It also exports carpets, fruits, nuts, iron, steel, and chemicals. Its chief export partners are: Also, worth noting, the value of the Iranian rial the official currency has been on the decline.
Last year, the value of the rial IRR versus the dollar was 1, The entire military consists of The actual number for the manpower fit for service is actually But, the best means of anticipating the amount of military spending depends heavily on the success of their economy that year.
If the market value of oil goes down that year, they will be spending less on arms than if the market performed well. Iran also has a legitimate concern over the security of their border with their biggest regional threat, Iraq, who also actively arming itself. Iran continues to strive to become the leader of the Islamic world and views itself as in conflict with the US for that role.
The Islamic Revolution ideology continuously assaults the US presence in the region and direct influence in internal affairs of states. Iran aims to assert itself as a leader, not only in the Persian Gulf, but in the Indian Ocean as well. Iran must increase relations with Russia in order to counter balance the US and to avoid a possible Russian re-armament of Iraq. Iran also strenuously objects to the legitimacy of the state of Israel and reportedly supports the recent Palestinian intifada uprising.
Due to September 11, President Bush declared war on terrorism. His war included those responsible for the attacks, such as al-Qaeda, and those who sponsor terror organizations. Bush listed North Korea, Iraq, and Iran. Iran was deemed as the 1 state sponsor of politically violent organizations and has retained this dubious award for the past seven years. Later in the interview he condemned terrorism and also called for peaceful relations with Islamic states and South Persian Gulf states.
Statements like these hardly resembled the rhetoric of Khomeini. It actually appeared as though Iran was making conscious efforts to change its image for foreign investment. But Iran did not forget its revolutionary past, and when the US discovered that a shipment of arms was intercepted on its way to Palestinians fighting in the intifada, Iran was once again viewed as a supporter of terror.
There is no question that al Qaeda has moved in and found sanctuary in Iran. And there is no question that Iran has moved into and out of Iran and dispersed into other countries. I am actually pleased that the present administration limited itself to an axis because, theoretically, this means that only three states can make up an axis, therefore we can avoid isolating anyone else.
But, I cannot stress enough that this name-calling has severely hurt any possibilities of establishing normal relations with Iran who had made efforts to please Western interests. It also borders the Caspian Sea and is just miles from possibly the most strategic waterway in the world, the Strait of Hormuz. This Strait is located at the mouth of the Persian Gulf and can seriously threaten the interests of the US. This strait is considered a natural chokepoint because every oil tanker that enters the region must pass through this strait which is considered one of the largest in the Middle East with a depth of ft.
Knowing the importance of its strategic location, Iran has placed an array of land, sea, and air launched cruise missiles from China and a variety of foreign made air launched short range tactical missiles along or near the coast of the Gulf. Many of these systems can be used as anti-ship weapons. Iran throughout the years has made moves to solidify its possible influence on the region and control over the Strait of Hormuz could be major leadership role for Iran. Iran, in its power quest, has seized control over three strategic islands in the Strait.
These islands are located only fifteen miles from the Iranian island of Qeshm and located on the Arabian side of the median line. There is also speculation that the islands may have oil which adds to its utility.
These Islands were taken the day before the British left the region on 30 November with the Iranian claim that these Islands were Persian before the British transferred their sovereignty to the trucial states.
The climate in Iran ranges from arid to semi-arid and subtropical along the Caspian coast. The terrain itself is described as being one of the most contrasting in the Middle East. The terrain is described as being a rugged and mountainous rim. It has high central basins with mountains and deserts along with small discontinuous planes along both coasts.
The Zagros Mountains extend northwest-southeast form the Turkish border for 1, miles to the Strait of Hormuz. It is in the four belts of the Zagros region that much of the population lives and most of the present and historical development of Iran have taken place. The Elburz Mountains in the north border the Caspian Sea. Its most valuable natural resource has been petroleum and its safe export is central to the survival of the state that relies almost solely on its sale as its main source of revenue which leaves the country very vulnerable.
Some of the natural hazards include periodic droughts, floods, dust storms, sandstorms, and earthquakes along the western borders. This information is very valuable. Iran is by far the most diverse country in the Middle East due to its historical location and its land patterns, which have resulted in adding a complexity of various groups and ethnic patterns.
Over the millennia, groups have invaded or migrated into the plateau from Asia Minor to the Caucasus, central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Once they found themselves south of the barriers of the Black Sea, Caucasus Mountains and Caspian Sea, migrants were forced through the mountain-ribbed Iranian throat between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf.
Some westward moving peoples pushed on into and across Mesopotamia; others elected to settle in the basins of the rugged Zagros Mountains. Persians make up half of the population of Iran and are the third largest people in the Middle East. Persians comprise the majority of the upper class, important government employees and the economic elite.
The Kurds, on the other hand reside in the far northwest region of the country in the segment of Kurdistan located in the western Zagros. The Kurds are the largest Sunni Muslim population in Iran and have fought the Iranian government throughout the past with the aid of the Iraqis in establishing the sovereign state of Kurdistan.
The Baluch are situated in the southeastern corner of Iran and are the least economically and nationally integrated of the major minorities. The Azeris are the largest ethno-linguistic minority in Iran. They are located just east of the Kurds in the area of Tabriz.
Since the fall of the Soviet Empire, many of these Azeris have traveled back and forth through Azerbaijan to visit family separated by the Cold War. The Azeris have hinted towards wanting to establish an enlarged independent state, which really has the Iranian government concerned. They generally resist government control and have interests on becoming independent. The Turkmen live in the area bordering Turkmenistan. They, much like the Azeris, travel back and forth to Turkmenistan and also have aspirations to become independent.
More than a million Arabs live at the head of the Gulf and also in the Zagros region. This fear never materialized. The Jews following the fall of the shah became persecuted due to their heightened status in society at the time.
Many reportedly left for Israel or the United States. The Armenians are well educated and largely have embraced the clergy. Due to their higher literacy, they work primarily in the Khuzistan oil fields. The Assyrians reside near Lake Urmia where they maintain their cohesion and preserve their cultural identity. Iran has opened its borders and faces a huge influx of refugees from Afghanistan and Iraq.
During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, many people fled into neighboring Iran in order to avoid the conflict. Many of these people were reluctant to return home even after the Soviet withdrawal.
This was due to increased conflict in the country. The Islamic Revolution was responsible for many things. The Ayatollah Khomeini openly endorsed the notion of enjoining Muslims to violently or nonviolently overthrow un-Islamic governments. This report also mentions that most of the activity does not come directly from President Khatami who has made efforts to reform the image of Iran to bring itself back into favor with the international community.
This is despite the fact that many of his rhetorical speeches are directed towards the US. This may largely be due to the need to satisfy his constituents because Iran is a revolutionary state. It should also be noted that no major international terrorist attacks have been traced to Iran since Khatami assumed the presidency. Most of the blame for the support of political violence comes from the Revolutionary Guard and the Ministry of Intelligence and Security.
These two organizations have been at the forefront of the sponsor of terror. Aid and support has been given throughout the past to Hizbollah Party of God. This Lebanon based organization received its motivation to act from the preaching of the Ayatollah Khomeini.
The goal of Hizbollah was originally to establish an Islamic republic in Lebanon. This organization was also responsible for taking eighteen Americans as hostage in Lebanon during that period three were killed. But Hizbollah also exists in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, as well. This group is also responsible for heinous crimes against the US. Patterns has stated that the Syria and Iran both supply aid to Hizbollah. According to Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher, Iran gives up to one hundred million dollars a year to the organization.
The State Department has not deviated from that figure since his announcement. It is impossible to discuss present day Iran without mentioning the importance that the Islamic revolution has played in shaping the country. The Islamic revolution is central to understanding the policies, government, military and social structure of the country. This will lead them from succumbing to the corrupting temptations that some Muslims believe are associated with Western ideals and principles. Following the US sponsored coup against Mossadeq, which placed the pro Western Reza Shah in power, many factors contributed to the reticence and resentment towards the United States.
Second, the adoption of conventional capitalist strategies for development and the subsequent widening of the gap between the rich and the poor the income distribution was known for being one of the most distorted in the world.
A combination of all these events accelerated the progress of movements focusing on the removal of the Shah from power. He established a land reform law that threatened the property of the religious foundations. This was most likely in an effort to discredit and take the legitimacy from the power of the clerics.
Khomeini was the youngest of six children and was born in the city of Khomeini located about miles south of Tehran, the capital of Iran. He comes from a long line of ayatollahs his great grandfather, grandfather, and father , thus, he began his Islamic study at an early age.
At the age of twenty seven he began instructing at Ispahan and then in Qom where he taught Islamic philosophy, Islamic law, mysticism, and ethics.
Upon his release, Khomeini was exiled to Turkey where he subsequently relocated to Najaf in Iraq. For the fourteen years in exile, the movement lacked the necessary leadership to continue. But, Khomeini continued to fight the battle writing another book known as Velayat-e Faqih: The notion of the velayat-e faqih is central to the understanding of the political structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The valy-e faqih is the supreme leader of the Iran, with wide political and spiritual authorities and the faqih is the only qualified and legitimate supreme political authority.
These tapes spread like wildfire throughout Iran, which set the tone for the upcoming revolution. These were listened to everywhere from mosques to living rooms. Sensing the growing opposition and power of Khomeini, the Shah asked the neighboring country of Iraq to expel him which they agreed to do.
Khomeini then settled in France for a short time before finally returning to Iran. In an attempt to restore the faith in the monarchy, the Shah began making concessions to the clerics and began recognizing the voice of the people. Despite this, the monarchy continued to live a lavish lifestyle in contrast to the living conditions of the people. Furthermore, inflation, unemployment, underemployment, and hosing shortages had increased.
Due to the growing civil unrest that ensued, the Shah became abandoned by the upper elite class, which ultimately placed all of the social classes against his reign. There his calls to either revolt violently or nonviolently by demonstrating or refusing to work and contribute to the un-Islamic leader, were met with a large response. His following increased to the point that the Shah could no longer control the uprisings. The revolution was important for many reasons.
The most outstanding reason is due to the fact that it was the first successful Islamic revolution in modern times. This is significant due to the recent history of colonialism that has taken control of the once great Ottoman Empire.
The effects of the influence of foreign powers in the region contribute to the loss of identity and pride. Much of the borders that exist today were decided by top British aids over lunch. Reportedly, the borders were drawn on the back of a cocktail napkin.
These lines were drawn through civilizations that have existed for centuries and dissected the region into new states with puppet leaders responsible for maintaining order and stability and to maintain compliance with Western interests.
The effects of these artificial borders continue to this day and are the center of conflict and possibly one of the greatest contributors to instability in the region.
The Kurds are a perfect example of a people separated by the borders of three different states: These people numbering around million seek independence and sovereignty over the land they have inhabited for centuries. They support the creation of the state of Kurdistan. Because of this and due to their refusal to assimilate into the society that they have been forced to comply to, they have become the victims of considerable violence and repression. The Kurds will be discussed later in the paper.
Another example of border disputes concerns the possession of key strategic islands in the Persian Gulf near the Strait of Hormuz.
These islands have been the center of conflict between Iran and the United Arab Emirates since Another region under dispute concerns the demarcation of the border separating Iran and Iraq and the fight over control of the major waterway known as the Shatt al Arab. This dispute was one of leading reasons for the Persian Gulf War that began shortly after the Islamic revolution and the hostage crisis that occurred following the ransack of the US embassy in Iran.
The revolution was important for many reasons largely due to the concepts that it espoused. First, that hereditary monarchical regimes were intrinsically un-Islamic, illegitimate, and sinful;. Second, Islam is a revolutionary political ideology enjoining Muslims violently or nonviolently to overthrow un-Islamic governments;.
Third, opposition to the government should involve non-cooperation with government institutions and the establishment of alternative Islamic institutions ;. These ideas challenged all secular leadership in the Middle East especially in the Gulf.
Gulf monarchies such as Saudi Arabia also felt endangered by the Islamic revolution. Questioning the legitimacy of the Saud family in ruling the country also raised concerns from King Khalid, the successor of King Faisal who was assassinated in , who ruled the monarchy until his death in Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most conservative of Arab states due to its adherence to the Sunni school of Islamic law known as Hanbali.
In , Iranian pilgrims attending the pilgrimage to Mecca undertook anti-Saudi demonstrations that led to a violent confrontation with police resulting in over casualties.
C in die Vgl. SvS, Hannarr J nach verm. Sv nimmt den ganzen einschub am H auf, bezeichnet ihn jedoch als unecht. RJDtHl , salar st. EgC, Svarins haugi E nach der prosa von Gylfag. Alfr mit kleinem a RH. H, in klammern J. D 2 , besondere str. D 2 MhSJ om. Sv, wie oben MhSJ. R KD DtHl, om. UWr GsJ, als besondere str. H, nach 28 als dritte str. H, an 33, 3. H; statt dessen hat diese hs. R Mb P schieben diese beiden Zeilen mit 44, 3.
H, als unecht hez. Wir geben hier nur die varr. Go HC, veit fr. TUWr, mit 47, 3 als anfang einer unvollst. U, in R abgek.: KD 1 ML; abgek. RMbPH, im übrigen lesen die ausgg. NMhSJ, vestan C, austan codd. In TWr lautet die zeile: W of veg TWr. RPGs ; i Is bes. H Bt; mit 56, 4. TWr; mit 56 zu einer str.
MLGv 1 davor in Gv l 55, 2 nebst den resten in H als bes. J lesen zu können. U; in H unleserlich, nur B glaubte noch die worte zu er- kennen: MLGv 1 , drepr [bann] af m. Sv, drepr bann af m. D 2 , Schaltsatz Bt. KD, mit 12, 3. R, ok aUe ausgg. BB, ergänzt von K. Gs, Njcda 11, , yrkendr R. Gv 2 B Stud. GvR stellen nach dem vor schlage von D in Hz 3, ; vgl.
Hl verbindet 87 u. R, ok die ausgg. Mk Zz 17, setzt die str. I nach J. J Hl , skalattu ausgg. J26, 1 — 3 abgekürzt in R: Vor 3 schieben i KDMGv aus pap. Gv 2 ; nach B Stud. Hleifi 8 ldurak ne hornigi. Dvalinn Dainn ok dvergum fyr fyr beide male abbreo. R ohne andeutung einer lückej. B ebenso sind auch in den folgenden strr.
RKM so auch TQllr in klammern S, om. BA ohne eine lüeke anzudeuten Hl. KRMMb ergänzen nach pap. W, nach allt T. An ihre stelle setzt Sch str. I 18 auch Gylfag. Sch, 26 — 35 Interpol. Fimbul, pul TWr c. Rinnandi S, Rennandi codd. B— 5 jüngerer einschub Gv 9 S. Navn , Hravn R. Sch in prosa Gylfag.
Sie stammen nach Es aus einer älteren fassung von Vm. T schreibt den namen mit dem letzten der vor. H, 1 est J, 68t[u] S , ertu RA. BGv l HHl als zwei kurzzeüen , Gv 2 dis eine vollzeile ; vgl. In unserer seile wird durch meine änderung auch der metr. BGoHCS mit recht ange- nommen. Alv 34, 4 , synir Sutt. J nicht zur str.
R, von jüngerer hand auf gefrischt: J ebenso 23, 5. RM , prosa H. Wortfolge durch lesezeichen angedeutet. J, 3 unecht aus Ls 60, 4 hierher geraten SJ, vielt. R KRMHl, aldrigi in enn? H, aldrigi en hn. Überschrift mit roter tintej: KMD 2 C, kolon R. Lokaglepsa so B nur in pap. Beyggvir R ebenso 45, 1, dagegen vor 43 u.
I prosa nach Gefjun at R, Gefjunar J zurückgenommen Ark. Grm 4, 4 , um So schon von H wrm. Byggvir in der zeile R vor allen folgenden strr. Mt der name des sprechenden ; s. Loki Br, Loptr T, om. Über- schrift halb erloschen, mit roter tinte: R Hl schon ergmizt von K.
S zweifelnd auch von B z. Überschrift mit roter tinte: ZK 4 für KT , for R, abbrev. R ebenso 3 , om. Senn V 9 ru hafrar heim of vreknir, skyndir at sk 9 klum, skyldu vel rinna: R ebenso 26, 3. K DHl mit bezeichnung der lücke Hl ; vgl. Gpr I, 25, 3. H Zze Gv Tidskr.
R, vagna vera edd. SJ, ek hefi R. S, enn HrQnn kendi? J 4 abgekürzt in R: Baldrs draumar nur in A, bl. Mb in klammern vier strr. Niflheljar A, nifl- heima W.
Mb in klammern zwei langzeilen aus pap. Valtams em ek son R, emk Valtams sonr J. K, Yqlva MbH Hl ebenso , 9. H, allt kunnak B ebenso 10, 2. Vsp 33,4 — 34,2. Mb in klammern eine langzeile aus pap. A, alda KR; vgl. S als den rest einer od.
C lücke nach z. Grt 23, 1 , magns at CHI, magns um W. Grt 16, 3 , QrrW edd. Strophe, deren erste zeile Floren J. Die ergänzungen in str. S, nach B Arle. B , fogla st. Cangandi C ebenso z. Go 2 , kvezk W, bazk Gv 2 CJ. Qllnm W, Qldura C nach verm. Sveinn S, keine interp. K, wie oben CJHl. S schlagt nach HHv 19, 1 , Dtilin F. J, sigum so od. Valamalmi C, valamalmi EgGv. Gc 2 Ez Interpol. F JHl Hl mit andeutung einer läcke.
Skilfingar F, Siklingar O. Klypps C, Klyps F. SJ, hinn elldri var Alfr F. Mb aber nach ausweis der Or var- Odds s. Saxos aufzählung sind die in str. F, hier nach Orvar-Odds 8. Bagi, Bragi , Barri r. KML, Ani ok Qnn v. Hl ; hierher versetzt mit B Ark. Gv 2 setzt 28, 1. S, Zz 12, 87 , Randvers F.
Gv 2 , nicht hierher gehörig H. Gv 2 verbindet 34 mit 36 zu einer str. Gv 2 , 2Ub. J Hl, sonar dr. Eg , regn F. CJ, eltlvina K aber edlvina 48, 3 R. Die angabe der redenden thU in ihnen. JF, 2 vekk SJ, vek ek codd. KRM mit den übr. Gv, at firr J. J ebenso 9, 1 usw. I, fyri londin londm? B ellifu codd KRMB der ellifu als verderbt bezeichnet n. Gv DgF 2, Gv DgF 2, 67 la. Hl, Sumur hver KRM. Iiildebrand, Die Lieder d. II , anm.
RMBGo i H, 1 — 3 bes. II, ; bestu 3. BMB, mit 16, 1, 2 zu einer str. S, ver meiri R. KRM mit 17, 2 — 4 zu einer str. Od 3, 3 folgt in R ohne andeutung einer lücke auf str. Eg , 1—5 besond. GrKBJ unecht Jh mit 20, 1. J, Sat [bann] S, Sat bann R.
Gr Hl, 1 enn mit kleinem e, doch punkt vorher R. Gv 2 HCJS vgl. Gv 1 , mit 31 zu einer str. HgGrHl , mit 34 zu einer str. S'töcfr in R nicht angedeutet, hier angesetzt mit S nach Gv 2 fehlen 2 verse hier oder vor zeüe 1; lücke vor 1 J. R; statt dessen bei MbH die Über- schrift: R; statt dessen fügt C ein: Go Udsigt over den nord.
I Die prosa unbehilflich u. R ebenso 18, 1. Blmel- mann Das altengl. Hjaldr es i hringi. Gu 1 aber s. Munknt ek Gc 2 , Munka ek cett. Helgi in klammem S, om. Gv 2 s b. H setzt diese zeile in die prosa nach str. Frekasteini] freka steini RHg, Sigarsvqllum C.
ME und Ros -eiet weisen die str. Go 2 B Helgedigt. Hg ebenso 15, 3. R und auch Vs: K mit andeutung einer liicke. Kattar als name eines riesen B. J vermuten aus fall der letzten zeile unserer str. Hl 2, , lopt R. S nehmen nach 2, W vor 1 eine lücke an. HR II 16 pr 8 und 22, 1 ; C setzt statt der beiden zeilen str. HH II 23, 1. HgGr , rest einer str. GrKJHl, anfang einer str. Go 1 , unecht Nd Hz 36, 1 Grindum K auch in Vs eigenname.
Hg Hl , besond. Gr y schlaf einer str. B; H schwankt , ob -vitr od. RMGv 1 , unecht C? C dagegen Dt, Ark. K mit bezeichnung einer lücke. HgGrRM, um K, om.
Bt wegen 80kja in z. Granmars son E die strr. Helga kvipa Hundingsbana II. Pr 08 a nach Hann R, Helgi RM. Hildr hefr oss verit; vinnat skjpldungar skppum. Hann R, Helgi KE. Gleichwol begegnet hier ungeschickt eingefügt ein teil davon, der aber einer andern recension angehört.
Diese einschiebung wird ein abschreiber vorgenommen haben. Zarncke, Berichte der kgl. Schon Gr bezeichnete die strr.
RRKM M teilt die str. HH I 47, 3. HHo 39 , 1. Bedfv 2 er- gänzen: Gpr I 24, 2. Gv l , anfang einer str. Gv i , anfang einer str. E fügt nach haug. BKM, Borgarr Gv- alle diese namen ohne gewähr. I 4 vilk SvJS, vil ek R. Hl II , S zu 22, 3. Hl 11, ; nicht von mir vermutet. J, womit nichts gebessert ist. SvJS , er ek R. Gv 2 aber wol druckfelüer, da in den laa. Von der ganz verblichenen ürsprl. Um Regin ok Otrs- gjcjld, der zweiten: Um Hnikar; bei Hg folgt die einl.
Gr Uber II, 31, RK auch in Vs fehlt ok. Bi, 2 auch Vols. R Gv; dagegen nach z. Andvari] der name hier vidi, unursprl. And- vari MbHHl , om. Hpv , 1. Nach J sind alle strr. R dagegen hat R str. Hl , pari, von nefna Mk briefl. RRK ; dagegen nach z. Fj 3,1 Prosa nach 9: Hl 2 , überzeugen nicht. R; dagegen nach z. J, ok ernmk fangs? B , Egis hj. S 19—22 der erste einschuh , dann 24, 25, zuletzt Nach S wäre das wort erst an stelle des ursprl.
Benutzt ist das lied in der Vols. BGoC, wie oben JS. Hl; C streicht die zeilen als unecht u. Mh DA 5, Hl 2 , MGvH ebenso 17, 1. Sdr 27, 2 , hvar R. Hov , 1 ff. Prosa nach 22 und J 2, vermutet als ursprl. Überlieferung verteidigen BtGv 1 a. R enthält auf bl. K Sigrdrifumgl BK, Brynh. Auch Vs beginnt an der dem anfang der einl. Prosa nach 1 u. GvH haben nach dem vorschlage von B die Unordnung: Fi n 24, 4. Mh DA 5, fg. Ts, mit 14, 1. HgHl, mit 15, 1 zu einer str. Grm 4, 4 ; vgl. C , komma die übr.