Gary 20 August Archived from the original PDF on October 3,
Ölpreis (WTI) Chart in Euro - 1 Jahr
If not, injury or accident may occur. The dust mask is available at a pharmacy and it is helpful for reducing the amount of pollens you breathe.
Parts must be replaced, or repaired. Replace worn or damaged parts with Honda genuine parts. Non equivalent quality parts may damage the machine You may feel the prickling or burning pain in your fingers, and the fingers may lose color and feeling depending on your constitution.
Young children move quickly and are attracted especially to the power head activity. Be alert and turn the power head off if children enter the area. To ensure safe operation Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard Exhaust contains poisonous carbon monoxide, a colorless and odorless gas. Breathing exhaust can cause loss of consciousness and may lead to death. Their meanings are explained on page 3.
These decals are considered as a part of the power head. Should one become detached or unreadable, contact your Honda dealer for its replacement. CE mark and noise label locations For European model: Model and Type 2.
Year of manufacture 3. Manufacturer and address 4. Frame serial number 5. Engine switch The engine switch enables and disables the ignition system. The engine switch must be in the ON position for the engine to run. Moving the engine switch to the OFF position stops the engine. Priming pump Pressing the priming pump feeds the gasoline from the fuel tank to the carburetor. Choke lever The choke lever opens and closes the choke valve in the carburetor. The OPEN position provides the correct fuel mixture for operation after starting, and for restarting a warm engine.
Throttle trigger The throttle trigger controls engine speed. Pulling and releasing the throttle trigger shown below makes the engine run faster or slower. By pulling the throttle trigger gradually, the engine speed increases. Joint The joint is to attach Honda approved attachment to the power head. Refer to Pages for how to attach and detach the attachments. Quick-release latch The quick-release latch tab is provided to detach the power head from your body in an emergency.
Perform a pre-operation inspection on a firm, level surface with the engine stopped and make sure that the engine switch is in the OFF position. Running the engine with low oil level will cause serious engine Use 4-stroke motor oil that meets or exceeds the requirements for API service classification SE or later or equivalent. Always check the API service label on the oil container to be sure it includes the letters SE or later or equivalent.
SAE 10W is recommended for general use. Check the fuel level Use automotive unleaded gasoline with a Research Octane Number of 91 or higher a Pump Octane Number of 86 or higher. Avoid getting dirt or water in the fuel tank. Check the fuel level visually from the outside of the fuel tank while keeping the fuel filler neck upright. If the fuel level is low, refuel the fuel tank until the level as specified. Remove the fuel tank cap gradually to release a pressurized air in the fuel tank.
Gasolines containing alcohol If you decide to use a gasoline containing alcohol gasohol , be sure its octane rating is at least as high as that recommended by Honda.
Never run the engine without the air cleaner; rapid engine wear will result. Remove the air cleaner cover by unhooking the upper tab on the top of the air cleaner cover and its two lower tabs. Check the throttle cable free play 1.
Consult with your authorized Honda dealer. Adjustment of the carrying harness Be sure to wear the carrying harness before using the power head. Otherwise, injuries might occur due to its instability. Roll the end of the harness toward your body and fasten it.
There is one applicable point on the back side of your body. Check the quick-release latch 1. Put on the carrying harness. Check the latch is released as soon as the quick-release latch tab is pulled upwards while holding the hip pad with your left hand. Insert the latch tongue in the slot of the quick-release latch to reattach the power head to the carrying harness.
Check if the set pin knob moves smoothly. Check if the joint knob tightens and loosens smoothly, and if there is no any damage. Make sure there is no debris in the groove and inside the joint holder. The engine shall not be started until the attachment is attached to the power head. Insert the attachment until the set pin knob clicks. Pull the attachment and joint holder to the arrow direction to check that the attachment will not come loose.
Be sure to turn off the engine switch. Confirm that the engine and the attachment is completely stopped before detaching the attachment. If the attachment is still moving, personal injury or equipment damage may occur. Loosen the joint knob. Pull up the set pin knob to the unlock position. Check all bolts and nuts 1. Check each bolt and nut for looseness. Tighten them securely if necessary.
Check the handle for loose mounting bolts or screws, and tighten them securely if necessary. Never run the engine in an enclosed area. Be sure to provide adequate ventilation. Be sure there are no obstacles in the working area. To restart warm engine, leave the choke lever in the OPEN position.
Do not use the choke if the engine is warm or the air temperature is high. Pull the starter grip lightly until you feel resistance while holding the main pipe, then pull briskly in the direction of the arrow as shown below. Return the starter grip gently. Return it gently to prevent damage to the starter. Carburetor Modification for High Altitude Operation.
At high altitude, the standard carburetor air-fuel mixture will be too rich. Performance will decrease, and fuel consumption will increase. A very rich mixture will also foul the spark plugs and cause hard starting. Operation at an altitude that differs from that at which this engine was certified, for extended periods of time, may increase emissions.
Read and understand the safety instructions on pages 3 to 10 before operating the power head. If you notice any abnormal sound, smell, vibration, or other unusual signs, stop the engine immediately and consult your authorized Honda dealer. With the engine idling, hook the power head to your carrying harness and hold the power head at the correct position.
Release the throttle trigger. Move the engine switch to the OFF position. OFF position to be certain the engine will not start accidentally. Use genuine Honda parts or their equivalent for maintenance or repair. Refer to the Honda shop manual for service procedures. Tool kit The tools supplied are necessary for performing some periodic maintenance, simple adjustments and repairs.
If the engine has been running, the engine, muffler and the engine oil are very hot and they remain hot for a while after stopping the engine.
To protect you from burn, wait until they cool down before starting the oil change. Please dispose of used motor oil in a manner that is compatible with the environment. We suggest you take it in a sealed container to your local service station for reclamation. Do not throw it in the trash or pour it on the ground. Air cleaner service A dirty air cleaner will restrict air flow to the carburetor. To prevent carburetor malfunction, service the air cleaner regularly.
Service more frequently when operating the power head in extremely dusty areas. Never use gasoline or low flash point solvents for cleaning the air cleaner element. Clean in warm soapy water, rinse and allow to dry to thoroughly. Or clean in high flash point solvent and allow to dry. Dip the element in clean engine oil and squeeze out all the excess. The engine will smoke during initial startup if too much oil is left in the foam. Spark plug service Recommended spark plug: If the engine has been running, the muffler will be very hot, be careful not to touch the muffler.
Never use a spark plug of incorrect heat range. Measure the plug gap with a feeler gauge. Correct as necessary by carefully bending the side electrode. The gap should be: Check that the spark plug washer is in good condition and thread the spark plug in by hand to prevent cross-threading.
After adjustment, check the throttle trigger for smooth operation. Consult your authorized Honda dealer if necessary. Reinstall the air cleaner cover by inserting the lower tabs, then insert the upper tab.
Engine cooling fin inspection Inspect the cooling fin visually through the cover. If there are dry grass, leaves and mud clogged, consult your authorized Honda dealer for cleaning it.
Water and dust, dirt or foreign material in the fuel tank cause a poor engine performance. Gasoline is extremely flammable and is explosive under certain conditions.
Fuel tube check Check fuel tubes for cracks and any other deterioration and confirm that there is no leakage of fuel on the fuel tubes.
If you notice any abnormal symptoms on the fuel tubes, contact an authorized Honda dealer. To avoid severe burns or fire hazards, let the engine cool before transporting the power head. Always turn the engine switch to the OFF position. Make sure the fuel cap is securely tightened.
Carrying the power head by hand: The following steps will help to keep rust and corrosion from impairing your power head. Press the priming pump several times until all fuel left in the fuel return tube is returned into the fuel tank. Tip the engine toward the fuel filler neck again to drain the fuel left in the fuel tank into the container. To check, press the priming pump several times see page Is the spark plug in good condition?
Clean, readjust gap and dry the spark plug. Replace it if necessary see page If the engine still does not start, take the power head to an authorized Honda dealer. Fournit des informations utiles. Mise au rebut En respect pour l'environnement, ne jetez pas ce produit, la batterie, l'huile moteur, etc.
Dans le cas contraire, un accident ou des blessures peuvent se produire. Constructeur et adresse 4. Global demand for crude oil grew an average of 1. After reaching a high of Energy demand is distributed amongst four broad sectors: This growth has largely come from new demand for personal-use vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Transportation is therefore of particular interest to those seeking to mitigate the effects of peak oil.
Although demand growth is highest in the developing world ,  the United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum. As countries develop , industry and higher living standards drive up energy use, oil usage being a major component.
Thriving economies, such as China and India , are quickly becoming large oil consumers. Another significant factor affecting petroleum demand has been human population growth. The United States Census Bureau predicts that world population in will be almost double that of Some analysts argue that the cost of oil has a profound effect on economic growth due to its pivotal role in the extraction of resources and the processing, manufacturing, and transportation of goods.
Such a scenario would result in an inability for national economies to pay high oil prices, leading to declining demand and a price collapse. Our analysis suggests there are ample physical oil and liquid fuel resources for the foreseeable future. However, the rate at which new supplies can be developed and the break-even prices for those new supplies are changing. Oil may come from conventional or unconventional sources.
The terms are not strictly defined, and vary within the literature as definitions based on new technologies tend to change over time. Some use the terms "conventional" oil for what is included in the model, and "unconventional" oil for classes excluded. In , Hubbert confined his peak oil prediction to that crude oil "producible by methods now in use. A study predicting an early peak excluded deepwater oil, tight oil, oil with API gravity less than Conventional oil is extracted on land and offshore using standard techniques,  and can be categorized as light, medium, heavy, or extra heavy in grade.
The exact definitions of these grades vary depending on the region from which the oil came. Heavy refers to oil that has higher density and therefore lower API gravity. While some of it can be produced using conventional techniques, recovery rates are better using unconventional methods.
According to the International Energy Agency , conventional crude oil production peaked in , with al all-time maximum of 70 millions of barrels per day. All the easy oil and gas in the world has pretty much been found. Now comes the harder work in finding and producing oil from more challenging environments and work areas. It is pretty clear that there is not much chance of finding any significant quantity of new cheap oil.
Any new or unconventional oil is going to be expensive. The peak of world oilfield discoveries occurred in the s  at around 55 billion barrels 8. But despite the fall-off in new field discoveries, and record-high production rates, the reported proved reserves of crude oil remaining in the ground in , which totaled 1, billion barrels, not counting Canadian heavy oil sands, were more than quadruple the proved reserves of billion barrels. Energy Information Administration has pointed out that after the first wave of discoveries in an area, most oil and natural gas reserve growth comes not from discoveries of new fields, but from extensions and additional gas found within existing fields.
A report by the UK Energy Research Centre noted that "discovery" is often used ambiguously, and explained the seeming contradiction between falling discovery rates since the s and increasing reserves by the phenomenon of reserve growth. The report noted that increased reserves within a field may be discovered or developed by new technology years or decades after the original discovery. But because of the practice of "backdating," any new reserves within a field, even those to be discovered decades after the field discovery, are attributed to the year of initial field discovery, creating an illusion that discovery is not keeping pace with production.
Hubbert's peak projection for the United States depended on geological estimates of ultimate recoverable oil resources, but starting in his publication, he concluded that ultimate oil recovery was an output of his mathematical analysis, rather than an assumption. He regarded his peak oil calculation as independent of reserve estimates. Many current 2P calculations predict reserves to be between and Gb, but some authors have written that because of misinformation, withheld information, and misleading reserve calculations, 2P reserves are likely nearer to — Gb.
Many of the so-called reserves are in fact resources. They're not delineated, they're not accessible, they're not available for production. One difficulty in forecasting the date of peak oil is the opacity surrounding the oil reserves classified as "proven". In many major producing countries, the majority of reserves claims have not been subject to outside audit or examination.
For the most part, proven reserves are stated by the oil companies, the producer states and the consumer states. All three have reasons to overstate their proven reserves: Besides the possibility that these nations have overstated their reserves for political reasons during periods of no substantial discoveries , over 70 nations also follow a practice of not reducing their reserves to account for yearly production.
Analysts have suggested that OPEC member nations have economic incentives to exaggerate their reserves, as the OPEC quota system allows greater output for countries with greater reserves.
Kuwait , for example, was reported in the January issue of Petroleum Intelligence Weekly to have only 48 billion barrels 7. This report was based on the leak of a confidential document from Kuwait and has not been formally denied by the Kuwaiti authorities.
This leaked document is from ,  but excludes revisions or discoveries made since then. Additionally, the reported 1. On the other hand, investigative journalist Greg Palast argues that oil companies have an interest in making oil look more rare than it is, to justify higher prices.
That trend of falling discoveries has continued in the ten years since the USGS made their assumption. The USGS is also criticized for other assumptions, as well as assuming production rates inconsistent with projected reserves. As conventional oil becomes less available, it can be replaced with production of liquids from unconventional sources such as tight oil , oil sands , ultra-heavy oils, gas-to-liquid technologies, coal-to-liquid technologies, biofuel technologies, and shale oil.
Reserve estimates are based on the oil price. Hence, unconventional sources such as heavy crude oil, oil sands, and oil shale may be included as new techniques reduce the cost of extraction. While the energy used, resources needed, and environmental effects of extracting unconventional sources have traditionally been prohibitively high, major unconventional oil sources being considered for large-scale production are the extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt of Venezuela ,  the Athabasca Oil Sands in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin ,  and the oil shale of the Green River Formation in Colorado , Utah , and Wyoming in the United States.
Chuck Masters of the USGS estimates that, "Taken together, these resource occurrences, in the Western Hemisphere , are approximately equal to the Identified Reserves of conventional crude oil accredited to the Middle East. Despite the large quantities of oil available in non-conventional sources, Matthew Simmons argued in that limitations on production prevent them from becoming an effective substitute for conventional crude oil.
Simmons stated "these are high energy intensity projects that can never reach high volumes" to offset significant losses from other sources. Moreover, oil extracted from these sources typically contains contaminants such as sulfur and heavy metals that are energy-intensive to extract and can leave tailings , ponds containing hydrocarbon sludge, in some cases. The point in time when peak global oil production occurs defines peak oil. Yet others believe that the peak may be to some extent led by declining demand as new technologies and improving efficiency shift energy usage away from oil.
Worldwide oil discoveries have been less than annual production since Because of this, oil production per capita peaked in preceded by a plateau during the period of — The increasing investment in harder-to-reach oil as of was said to signal oil companies' belief in the end of easy oil. Among the reasons cited were both geological factors as well as "above ground" factors that are likely to see oil production plateau. A Journal of Energy Security analysis of the energy return on drilling effort energy returned on energy invested , also referred to as EROEI in the United States concluded that there was extremely limited potential to increase production of both gas and especially oil.
By looking at the historical response of production to variation in drilling effort, the analysis showed very little increase of production attributable to increased drilling. This was because of diminishing returns with increasing drilling effort: The study concluded that even an enormous increase of drilling effort was unlikely to significantly increase oil and gas production in a mature petroleum region such as the United States.
The assumption of inevitable declining volumes of oil and gas produced per unit of effort is contrary to recent experience in the US. In the United States, as of , there has been an ongoing decade-long increase in the productivity of oil and gas drilling in all the major tight oil and gas plays.
The US Energy Information Administration reports, for instance, that in the Bakken Shale production area of North Dakota, the volume of oil produced per day of drilling rig time in January was 4 times the oil volume per day of drilling five years previous, in January , and nearly 10 times the oil volume per day of ten years previous, in January In the Marcellus gas region of the northeast, The volume of gas produced per day of drilling time in January was 3 times the gas volume per day of drilling five years previous, in January , and 28 times the gas volume per day of drilling ten years previous, in January Average yearly gains in global supply from to were 1.
The Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas agreed with their decline rates, but considered the rate of new fields coming online overly optimistic. Entities such as governments or cartels can reduce supply to the world market by limiting access to the supply through nationalizing oil, cutting back on production, limiting drilling rights, imposing taxes, etc.
International sanctions, corruption, and military conflicts can also reduce supply. Another factor affecting global oil supply is the nationalization of oil reserves by producing nations. The nationalization of oil occurs as countries begin to deprivatize oil production and withhold exports. Kate Dourian, Platts' Middle East editor, points out that while estimates of oil reserves may vary, politics have now entered the equation of oil supply. Major oil companies operating in Venezuela find themselves in a difficult position because of the growing nationalization of that resource.
These countries are now reluctant to share their reserves. Saudi Arabia is also limiting capacity expansion, but because of a self-imposed cap, unlike the other countries.
OPEC is an alliance among 14 diverse oil-producing countries as of May OPEC's power was consolidated in the s and s as various countries nationalized their oil holdings, and wrested decision-making away from the " Seven Sisters " Anglo-Iranian, Socony, Royal Dutch Shell, Gulf, Esso, Texaco, Socal , and created their own oil companies to control the oil. OPEC often tries to influence prices by restricting production. It does this by allocating each member country a quota for production.
Members agree to keep prices high by producing at lower levels than they otherwise would. There is no way to enforce adherence to the quota, so each member has an individual incentive to "cheat" the cartel. Commodities trader Raymond Learsy, author of Over a Barrel: To back his argument, he points to past false alarms and apparent collaboration.
In , Hubbert predicted that world oil production would peak at a rate of However, a number of industry leaders and analysts believe that world oil production will peak between and , with a significant chance that the peak will occur before Papers published since have been relatively pessimistic.
A Kuwait University study predicted production would peak in A validation of a significant study in the journal Energy proposed that it is likely that conventional oil production peaked, according to various definitions, between and A set of models published in a Ph. Major oil companies hit peak production in The Coming Saudi Oil Shock and the World Economy , "peaking is one of these fuzzy events that you only know clearly when you see it through a rear view mirror, and by then an alternate resolution is generally too late.
The wide use of fossil fuels has been one of the most important stimuli of economic growth and prosperity since the industrial revolution , allowing humans to participate in takedown, or the consumption of energy at a greater rate than it is being replaced. Some believe that when oil production decreases, human culture and modern technological society will be forced to change drastically. The impact of peak oil will depend heavily on the rate of decline and the development and adoption of effective alternatives.
As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.
The oil price historically was comparatively low until the oil crisis and the energy crisis when it increased more than tenfold during that six-year timeframe.
Even though the oil price dropped significantly in the following years, it has never come back to the previous levels. It is generally agreed that the main reason for the price spike in — was strong demand pressure. The consumption rates were far above new discoveries in the period, which had fallen to only eight billion barrels of new oil reserves in new accumulations in Oil price increases were partially fueled by reports that petroleum production is at    or near full capacity.
Besides supply and demand pressures, at times security related factors may have contributed to increases in prices,  including the War on Terror , missile launches in North Korea ,  the Crisis between Israel and Lebanon ,  nuclear brinkmanship between the U. Department of Energy and others showing a decline in petroleum reserves. This price drop has placed many US tight oil producers under considerable financial pressure.
In the past, sudden increases in the price of oil have led to economic recessions , such as the and energy crises. The effect the increased price of oil has on an economy is known as a price shock.
In many European countries, which have high taxes on fuels , such price shocks could potentially be mitigated somewhat by temporarily or permanently suspending the taxes as fuel costs rise.
A baseline scenario for a recent IMF paper found oil production growing at 0. Researchers at the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum found that the economy can adjust to steady, gradual increases in the price of crude better than wild lurches.
Some economists predict that a substitution effect will spur demand for alternate energy sources , such as coal or liquefied natural gas.
This substitution can be only temporary, as coal and natural gas are finite resources as well. Prior to the run-up in fuel prices, many motorists opted for larger, less fuel-efficient sport utility vehicles and full-sized pickups in the United States, Canada, and other countries.
This trend has been reversing because of sustained high prices of fuel. The September sales data for all vehicle vendors indicated SUV sales dropped while small cars sales increased. Hybrid and diesel vehicles are also gaining in popularity. In , a report by Cambridge Energy Research Associates stated that had been the year of peak gasoline usage in the United States, and that record energy prices would cause an "enduring shift" in energy consumption practices.
P o i s t a h ä v i t ä - Avaa suodatin ja poista polttoainesuodatin suodatusmassa. Varmista, että asetat putket oikein takaisin, ettei dieselöljyä valu ulos. Varmista, että asetat muoviset välikappaleet A , metallisen välikappaleen B ja For engines tärinää Varmista, että asetat metallisen välikappaleet A , ja tärinää estävät kumirenkaat B oikein takaisin.
Moottorit Pour moteurs - Den Tank wieder einbauen und dabei darauf achten, dass die Distanzstücke aus Metall A , sowie die schwingungsdämpfenden Gummiringe B. Ylläpitäjä auringon Officine valtuutettu Lombardini. Verwaltet von der Sonne Officine autorisierten Lombardini. Mantenido por el sol Officine autorizado Lombardini. Peitä moottori tarvittaessa sopivalla suojapeitolla.
Jos erikoiskäyttö vaatii huomattavia muutoksia jäähdytys-, voitelu- esim. Wenn die Motoren in nicht von Lombardini S. Nach Ablauf der oben genannten Fristen bzw. As the heavy-duty off-road engine owner, you should however be aware that Lombardini srl. Koska raskaiden off-road moottori omistajana sinun pitäisi kuitenkin olla tietoisia siitä, että Lombardini srl. Die Wahl und die Verantwortung für die Entscheidung, ob ein defektes Emissionsregelsystem repariert oder ausgetauscht wird, liegt alleine bei Lombardini srl.
Also See for 15 LD Workshop manual - 74 pages Use and maintenance - pages Use maintenance and consumer information - 88 pages. Page of Go. Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 - Moottorit kuivalla ilmasuodattimella - T Table of Contents Add to my manuals Add. Lombardini 15 LD Workshop Manual 74 pages. Preface The information contained within this service manual is the sole property of Lombardini.
Johdanto Käyttöohjeessa oletetaan, että Lombardini-moottoreihin huoltotöitä tekevät henkilöt: Page 24 Lombardini engines are built to provide safe and are removed, or if parts not described in the Fuel is flammable, so the tank must be filled only Page 36 Raümen sarten.
Page 37 Betriebshilfsstoffe entfernen. Page - Reassemble tank paying particular attention in replacing correctly the metal spacers A , and the vibration-damping rubber rings B. Moottorit Pour moteurs - Den Tank wieder einbauen und dabei darauf achten, dass die Distanzstücke aus Metall A , sowie die schwingungsdämpfenden Gummiringe B Page