Jennifer Handel


Another masque, Haman and Mordecai , was to be the effective starting point for the English oratorio. His fame had spread throughout Italy, and his mastery of the Italian opera style now made him an international figure. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. The firm's products include classic stripes, prints and baby sleeper outfits. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

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Like other composers of his time, he accepted the conventions of Italian opera, with its employment of male sopranos and contraltos and the formalized sequences of stylized recitatives and arias upon which opera seria was constructed.

Using these conventions, he produced many masterpieces. Among the Italian operas, such works as Giulio Cesare , Sosarme , and Alcina still make impressive stage spectacles, with some scenes of great dramatic power bursting through the formal Baroque grandeur.

Many of his Italian operas were revived in the 20th century. Most of them, from early attempts such as Esther to such consummately crafted later works as Saul , Samson , Belshazzar , and Jephtha , treat a particular dramatic theme taken from the Old Testament that illustrates the heroism and suffering of a particular individual.

The story line is illustrated by solo recitatives and arias and underlined by the chorus. With Israel in Egypt and Messiah , however, the emphasis is quite different, Israel because of its uninterrupted chain of massive choruses, which do not lend themselves to stage presentation, and Messiah because it is a meditation on the life of Christ the Saviour rather than a dramatic narration of his Passion. Handel also used the dramatic oratorio genre for a number of secular works, chief among which are Semele and Hercules , both based on stories from Greek mythology.

But the finest of his secular choral works is Acis and Galatea , which has a youthful magic he never quite recovered in subsequent pieces of this type. Most of the orchestral music Handel wrote consists of overtures, often in the style of Lully, and totaling about 80 in number. Handel was equally adept at the concerto form, especially the concerto grosso , in which he generally employed four or more movements.

The Water Music and Fireworks Music suites, for wind and string band, stand in a special class in the history of late Baroque music by virtue of their combination of grandeur and melodic bravura. They are still among the most popular of his works. The ever-popular Harmonious Blacksmith variations are in No. He also wrote various sonatas for one or more solo instruments with basso continuo accompaniment for harpsichord. In addition, he was a notable organist and composed more than 20 organ concertos, most of which Handel used as intermission features during performances of his oratorios.

In England, Handel was accorded the status of a classic composer even in his own lifetime, and he is perhaps unique among musicians in never having suffered any diminution of his reputation there since. As a young man on the European continent, he had to some extent supplied the demands of aristocratic patronage, but in England he adapted himself to a different climate of opinion and taste and came to serve and express the needs of a wider public.

More than anyone else, he democratized music, and in this respect his popular oratorios, his songs, and his best-loved instrumental works have a social significance that complements their purely musical importance.

In Germany , meanwhile, interest in his music grew apace in the late 18th century and reestablished him as a German composer of the first rank.

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Jan 3, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Keiser composed more than 60 operas, mostly to German texts, of which only 19 survive.

He was highly regarded by both his peers and his public, who were attracted…. Both were born in the same part of Germany; both were reared in the Lutheran Church; and both were primarily organists; but because of different environmental circumstances each became a master of different musical forms.

Handel, because of his conditioning in…. Handel left around 35 concerti in all about —50 , including three sets of organ concerti with oboe and strings; one set for strings and winds Opus 3 ; one set in the tutti—soli setting for strings alone Opus 6 that Corelli had used; and several concerti…. Baroque art and architecture , the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century.

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The Silk Road consisted of several routes. As it extended westwards from the ancient commercial centres of China, the overland, intercontinental Silk Road divided into northern and southern routes bypassing the Taklamakan Desert and Lop Nur. Merchants along these routes where involved in "relay trade" in which goods changed "hands many times before reaching their final destinations. The northern route started at Chang'an now called Xi'an , an ancient capital of China that was moved further east during the Later Han to Luoyang.

The route was defined around the 1st century BCE when Han Wudi put an end to harassment by nomadic tribes. The northern route travelled northwest through the Chinese province of Gansu from Shaanxi Province and split into three further routes, two of them following the mountain ranges to the north and south of the Taklamakan Desert to rejoin at Kashgar , and the other going north of the Tian Shan mountains through Turpan , Talgar , and Almaty in what is now southeast Kazakhstan.

The routes split again west of Kashgar, with a southern branch heading down the Alai Valley towards Termez in modern Uzbekistan and Balkh Afghanistan , while the other travelled through Kokand in the Fergana Valley in present-day eastern Uzbekistan and then west across the Karakum Desert.

Both routes joined the main southern route before reaching ancient Merv , Turkmenistan. Another branch of the northern route turned northwest past the Aral Sea and north of the Caspian Sea , then and on to the Black Sea. A route for caravans, the northern Silk Road brought to China many goods such as "dates, saffron powder and pistachio nuts from Persia; frankincense , aloes and myrrh from Somalia ; sandalwood from India; glass bottles from Egypt, and other expensive and desirable goods from other parts of the world.

The southern route or Karakoram route was mainly a single route from China through the Karakoram mountains , where it persists in modern times as the Karakoram Highway , a paved road that connects Pakistan and China.

Crossing the high mountains, it passed through northern Pakistan, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Afghanistan, rejoining the northern route near Merv, Turkmenistan. From Merv, it followed a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran, Mesopotamia , and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant , where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy , while land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa.

Another branch road travelled from Herat through Susa to Charax Spasinu at the head of the Persian Gulf and across to Petra and on to Alexandria and other eastern Mediterranean ports from where ships carried the cargoes to Rome. Strabo, the 1st-century Roman writer, mentions the deltaic lands: Ptolemy's map of the Ganges Delta , a remarkably accurate effort, showed that his informants knew all about the course of the Brahmaputra River, crossing through the Himalayas then bending westward to its source in Tibet.

It is doubtless that this delta was a major international trading center, almost certainly from much earlier than the Common Era. Gemstones and other merchandise from Thailand and Java were traded in the delta and through it. Chinese archaeological writer Bin Yang and some earlier writers and archaeologists, such as Janice Stargardt, strongly suggest this route of international trade as Sichuan — Yunnan — Burma — Bangladesh route. According to Bin Yang, especially from the 12th century the route was used to ship bullion from Yunnan gold and silver are among the minerals in which Yunnan is rich , through northern Burma, into modern Bangladesh, making use of the ancient route, known as the 'Ledo' route.

The emerging evidence of the ancient cities of Bangladesh, in particular Wari-Bateshwar ruins , Mahasthangarh , Bhitagarh , Bikrampur , Egarasindhur, and Sonargaon , are believed to be the international trade centers in this route.

Richard Foltz , Xinru Liu , and others have described how trading activities along the Silk Road over many centuries facilitated the transmission not just of goods but also ideas and culture, notably in the area of religions.

Zoroastrianism , Judaism , Buddhism, Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam all spread across Eurasia through trade networks that were tied to specific religious communities and their institutions. The spread of religions and cultural traditions along the Silk Roads, according to Jerry H.

Bentley , also led to syncretism. One example was the encounter with the Chinese and Xiongnu nomads. These unlikely events of cross-cultural contact allowed both cultures to adapt to each other as an alternative. The Xiongnu adopted Chinese agricultural techniques, dress style, and lifestyle, while the Chinese adopted Xiongnu military techniques, some dress style, music, and dance. Nomadic mobility played a key role in facilitating inter-regional contacts and cultural exchanges along the ancient Silk Roads.

The transmission of Christianity was primarily known as Nestorianism on the Silk Road. In , an inscribed stele shows Nestorian Christian missionaries arriving on the Silk Road. Christianity had spread both east and west, simultaneously bringing Syriac language and evolving the forms of worship. The transmission of Buddhism to China via the Silk Road began in the 1st century CE, according to a semi-legendary account of an ambassador sent to the West by the Chinese Emperor Ming 58— The Buddhist movement was the first large-scale missionary movement in the history of world religions.

Chinese missionaries were able to assimilate Buddhism, to an extent, to native Chinese Daoists, which brought the two beliefs together. These people moved through India and beyond to spread the ideas of Buddha. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either Parthian , Kushan, Sogdian , or Kuchean. One result of the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Road was displacement and conflict.

The Greek Seleucids were exiled to Iran and Central Asia because of a new Iranian dynasty called the Parthians at the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, and as a result the Parthians became the new middle men for trade in a period when the Romans were major customers for silk. Parthian scholars were involved in one of the first ever Buddhist text translations into the Chinese language.

Its main trade centre on the Silk Road, the city of Merv , in due course and with the coming of age of Buddhism in China, became a major Buddhist centre by the middle of the 2nd century. From the 4th century CE onward, Chinese pilgrims also started to travel on the Silk Road to India to get improved access to the original Buddhist scriptures, with Fa-hsien 's pilgrimage to India — , and later Xuanzang — and Hyecho , who traveled from Korea to India.

There were many different schools of Buddhism travelling on the Silk Road. The Dharmaguptakas and the Sarvastivadins were two of the major Nikaya schools. These were both eventually displaced by the Mahayana, also known as "Great Vehicle". This movement of Buddhism first gained influence in the Khotan region. It formed during the 1st century BCE and was small at first, and the origins of this "Greater Vehicle" are not fully clear.

Some Mahayana scripts were found in northern Pakistan, but the main texts are still believed to have been composed in Central Asia along the Silk Road.

These different schools and movements of Buddhism were a result of the diverse and complex influences and beliefs on the Silk Road. This form of Buddhism highlighted, as stated by Xinru Liu, "the elusiveness of physical reality, including material wealth. During the 5th and 6th centuries CE, merchants played a large role in the spread of religion, in particular Buddhism.

Merchants found the moral and ethical teachings of Buddhism an appealing alternative to previous religions. As a result, merchants supported Buddhist monasteries along the Silk Road, and in return the Buddhists gave the merchants somewhere to stay as they traveled from city to city.

As a result, merchants spread Buddhism to foreign encounters as they traveled. As a result, these communities became centers of literacy and culture with well-organized marketplaces, lodging, and storage. Many artistic influences were transmitted via the Silk Road, particularly through Central Asia, where Hellenistic , Iranian , Indian and Chinese influences could intermix.

Greco-Buddhist art represents one of the most vivid examples of this interaction. Silk was also a representation of art, serving as a religious symbol. Most importantly, silk was used as currency for trade along the silk road. These artistic influences can be seen in the development of Buddhism where, for instance, Buddha was first depicted as human in the Kushan period.

Many scholars have attributed this to Greek influence. The mixture of Greek and Indian elements can be found in later Buddhist art in China and throughout countries on the Silk Road. The production of art consisted of many different items that were traded along the Silk Roads from the East to the West. One common product, the lapis lazuli , was a blue stone with golden specks, which was used as paint after it was ground into powder.

The United Nations World Tourism Organization has been working since to develop sustainable international tourism along the route with the stated goal of fostering peace and understanding. Bishkek and Almaty each have a major east-west street named after the Silk Road Kyrgyz: Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh. Shaki Caravanserai , Azerbaijan. Orbelian's Caravanserai , Armenia. Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel , sancai ceramic glaze, Chinese Tang dynasty — A late Zhou or early Han Chinese bronze mirror inlaid with glass , perhaps incorporated Greco-Roman artistic patterns.

Han dynasty Granary west of Dunhuang on the Silk Road. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the series of trade routes. For other uses, see Silk Road disambiguation. Europeans in Medieval China. History of Islamic economics. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cities along the Silk Road. Woven silk textiles from Tomb No. Nestorian Christianity and Church of the East.

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