Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

 


Advertisement - opens new tab. In order to cement their rule, Muslim rulers initially promoted a system in which there was a revolving door between the clergy, the administrative nobility and the mercantile classes. Later rulers fought on to win kingdoms and stayed to create new ruling dynasties. There is also the example of Sultan Abidin —70 sending Kashmiri artisans to Samarqand to learn book-binding and paper making. Arab records merely state that he was successful, Indian records at Navasari [58] details that Arab forces defeated "Kacchella, Saindhava, Saurashtra, Cavotaka, Maurya and Gurjara" kings.

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The practices of these new rulers and their subsequent heirs some of whom were born of Hindu wives of Muslim rulers varied considerably. While some were uniformly hated, others developed a popular following. According to the memoirs of Ibn Battuta who traveled through Delhi in the 14th century, one of the previous sultans had been especially brutal and was deeply hated by Delhi's population. His memoirs also indicate that Muslims from the Arab world, Persia and Turkey were often favored with important posts at the royal courts suggesting that locals may have played a somewhat subordinate role in the Delhi administration.

The term " Turk " was commonly used to refer to their higher social status. Rizvi [] points to Muhammad bin Tughlaq as not only encouraging locals but promoting artisan groups such as cooks, barbers and gardeners to high administrative posts. In his reign, it is likely that conversions to Islam took place as a means of seeking greater social mobility and improved social standing.

Aurangzeb 's Deccan campaign saw one of the largest death tolls in South Asian history, with an estimated 4. Islam's impact was the most notable in the expansion of trade.

The first contact of Muslims with India was the Arab attack on a nest of pirates near modern-day Mumbai to safeguard their trade in the Arabian Sea. Around the same time many Arabs settled at Indian ports, giving rise to small Muslim communities. The growth of these communities was not only due to conversion but also the fact that many Hindu kings of south India such as those from Cholas hired Muslims as mercenaries.

A significant aspect of the Muslim period in world history was the emergence of Islamic Sharia courts capable of imposing a common commercial and legal system that extended from Morocco in the West to Mongolia in the North East and Indonesia in the South East. In order to cement their rule, Muslim rulers initially promoted a system in which there was a revolving door between the clergy, the administrative nobility and the mercantile classes.

He served as an Imam in Delhi, as a judicial official in the Maldives, and as an envoy and trader in the Malabar. There was never a contradiction in any of his positions because each of these roles complemented the other. Islam created a compact under which political power, law and religion became fused in a manner so as to safeguard the interests of the mercantile class.

This led world trade to expand to the maximum extent possible in the medieval world. Sher Shah Suri took initiatives in improvement of trade by abolishing all taxes which hindered progress of free trade. He built large networks of roads and constructed Grand Trunk Road — , which connects Chittagong to Kabul.

Parts of it are still in use today. The geographic regions add to the diversity of languages and politics. The divide and rule policies, two-nation theory, and subsequent partition of India in the wake of Independence from the British Empire has polarised the sub-continental psyche, making objective assessment hard in comparison to the other settled agricultural societies of India from the North West.

Muslim rule differed from these others in the level of assimilation and syncretism that occurred. They retained their identity and introduced legal and administrative systems that superseded existing systems of social conduct and ethics. While this was a source of friction it resulted in a unique experience the legacy of which is a Muslim community strongly Islamic in character while at the same time distinctive and unique among its peers.

The impact of Islam on Indian culture has been inestimable. Conversely, the languages of the Muslim invaders were modified by contact with local languages, to Urdu, which uses the Arabic script. This language was also known as Hindustani , an umbrella term used for the vernacular terminology of Hindi as well as Urdu , both major languages in South Asia today derived primarily from Sanskrit grammatical structures and vocabulary.

Muslim rule saw a greater urbanisation of India and the rise of many cities and their urban cultures. The biggest impact was upon trade resulting from a common commercial and legal system extending from Morocco to Indonesia. This change of emphasis on mercantilism and trade from the more strongly centralised governance systems further clashed with the agricultural based traditional economy and also provided fuel for social and political tensions.

A related development to the shifting economic conditions was the establishment of Karkhanas, or small factories and the import and dissemination of technology through India and the rest of the world.

The use of ceramic tiles was adopted from architectural traditions of Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia. Rajasthan's blue pottery was a local variation of imported Chinese pottery.

There is also the example of Sultan Abidin —70 sending Kashmiri artisans to Samarqand to learn book-binding and paper making. Khurja and Siwan became renowned for pottery, Moradabad for brass ware, Mirzapur for carpets, Firozabad for glass wares, Farrukhabad for printing, Sahranpur and Nagina for wood-carving, Bidar and Lucknow for bidriware, Srinagar for papier-mache, Benaras for jewellery and textiles, and so on.

On the flip-side encouraging such growth also resulted in higher taxes on the peasantry. Numerous Indian scientific and mathematical advances and the Hindu numerals were spread to the rest of the world [4] and much of the scholarly work and advances in the sciences of the age under Muslim nations across the globe were imported by the liberal patronage of Arts and Sciences by the rulers.

The languages brought by Islam were modified by contact with local languages leading to the creation of several new languages, such as Urdu , which uses the modified Arabic script , but with more Persian words.

The influences of these languages exist in several dialects in India today. At the same time, Muslim rulers destroyed most of the ancient Indian architectural marvels and converted them into Islamic structures, most notably at Varanasi , Mathura , Ayodhya and the Kutub Complex in New Delhi. Historian Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Delhi Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.

There was often a pattern of Delhi sultans plundering or damaging temples during conquest, and then patronizing or repairing temples after conquest. This pattern came to an end with the Mughal Empire , where Akbar the Great 's chief minister Abu'l-Fazl criticized the excesses of earlier sultans such as Mahmud of Ghazni. In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings.

For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts. The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from through the early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under the Khaljis, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through the late 13th century.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples. For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.

In , the Nalanda University complex was destroyed by Afghan Khalji - Ghilzai Muslims under Bakhtiyar Khalji ; this event is seen as the final milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. He also burned Nalanda's major Buddhist library and Vikramshila University, [] as well as numerous Buddhist monasteries in India. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin Chag Lo-tsa-ba, — , visited northern India in , Nalanda was damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with seventy students.

Mahabodhi, Sompura, Vajrasan and other important monasteries were found to be untouched. The Ghuri ravages only afflicted those monasteries that lay in the direct of their advance and were fortified in the manner of defensive forts.

By the end of the 12th century, following the Muslim conquest of the Buddhist stronghold in Bihar, Buddhism, having already declined in the South, declined in the North as well because survivors retreated to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet or escaped to the South of the Indian sub-continent.

He ruled from to and is remembered for his strenuous efforts to convert the Hindus of Kashmir to Islam. These efforts included the destruction of numerous old temples, such as Martand, prohibition of Hindu rites, rituals and festivals and even the wearing of clothes in the Hindu style.

He is known as "Butcher of Kashmir" and among the most hated figures among Kashmiri Hindus. The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the Vijayanagar Empire. During this time, it was often in conflict with the kingdoms which rose in the Northern Deccan , and which are often collectively termed the Deccan Sultanates.

The Vijaynagar Empire successfully resisted Muslim invasions for centuries. But in , the empire's armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at the hands of an alliance of the Sultanates, and the capital was taken.

The victorious armies then razed, depopulated and destroyed the city over several months. The empire continued its slow decline, but the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt. According to an CE inscription, Bhima rebuilt the temple. This inscription does not mention any destruction caused by Mahmud, and states that the temple had "decayed due to time". It was repeatedly attacked in the later centuries, including by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Ghazwa-e-Hind or the final battle of India is an Islamic term mentioned in some "good" hadiths in particular [] predicting a final and last battle in India and as a result, a conquest of the whole Indian subcontinent by Muslim warriors. The term has recently become a subject of vast criticism in media for being used by militant groups to justify their activities in the Indian subcontinent.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Madrasian Culture Soanian Culture. Bronze Age — BC. Iron Age — BC. Late medieval period — Early modern period — Periods of Sri Lanka. Muhammad bin Qasim and Caliphate campaigns in India.

Caliphate campaigns in India. Rajput kingdoms of North India and List of Rajput dynasties. Rajput women commit Jauhar during Akbar's invasion. Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire. Iconoclasm under the Delhi Sultanate. Kakatiya Kala Thoranam Warangal Gate built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.

Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji. Rani ki vav is a stepwell , built by the Chaulukya dynasty , located in Patan ; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between and , and it was destroyed by the Allauddin Khilji in Pillar and ceiling carvings with a damaged madanakai at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.

Front view of the present Somnath Temple. The Somnath temple was first attacked by Muslim Turkic invader Mahmud of Ghazni and repeatedly rebuilt after being demolished by successive Muslim rulers. Islamic eschatology and Jihad.

This section relies excessively on partisan sources. Please improve this section or discuss the issue on the talk page. When the army returned, he wrote to 'Umar, informing him of this expedition.

By Allah, I swear that if they had been smitten, I would exact from thy tribe the equivalent. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies 2nd ed. Retrieved 9 August Islam in South Asia: Land of seven rivers: History of India's Geography.

Baber first tried to recover Samarkand, the former capital of the empire founded by his Mongol ancestor Timur Lenk To the Year A. History of the Sikhs: Online copy , 2. Tinur's Account of His Invasion". Islam in Global History: Proselytization in Provincial Muslim Kingdoms". In conclusion it may be emphasised that even when historical forces had divided the country into a number of independent states consequent on the break-up of the Delhi Sultanate, the work of proselytization continued unabated.

Indeed, it made the task of conversion easy. Small regions could be dealt with in detail and severe Muslim rulers, orthodox Ulema and zealous Sufis worked in them effectively. It was due to extraordinary situations that the Kashmir valley and Eastern Bengal became Muslim-majority regions as far back as the fifteenth century.

In other parts of the country, where there was a Muslim ruler, Muslim population grew apace in the normal and usual way. Retrieved 29 April A Century of Political Decline: Muslim Civilization in India. Retrieved 5 November Sikh Religion and Philosophy, p. The Role Of Shah Waliallah A Historical Encyclopedia [ Rathod — Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 7 February Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City".

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Archived from the original on 22 December The Spread of Islam Throughout the World. Hitti, Philip K History of The Arabs 10th Edition. The MacMillan Press Ltd. The Armies of The Caliphs. The Great Arab Conquests. An Account of the Arab Conquests of Sindh. Please donate extra if you can. This comment contains spoilers click to show. Your prompt attention will be appreciated.

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