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The rise in the Japanese yen can be attributed partly to the shift in the Bank of Japan’s policy and the currency’s safe-haven appeal.

The demand for the yen is governed by the desire of foreigners to buy goods and services in Japan and by their interest in investing in Japan buying yen-denominated real and financial assets. My friend got engaged a few months before I did.

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Gold ends New Year's Eve and in the red, but books 7% quarterly gain as stocks swoon. Gold futures on Monday closed out New Year's Eve with a loss for the session and year, but garnered some.

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Would definitely recommend buyforexonline. These guys are really quick in responding to your queries and addressing your concerns. The team has a standard processing time but to my surprise it was done earlier than expected. The Bank of Japan maintains a policy of zero to near-zero interest rates and the Japanese government has an extreme anti-inflation policy. Originally, the Chinese had traded silver in mass called sycees and when Spanish and Mexican silver coins arrived, the Chinese called them "silver rounds" Chinese: The spelling and pronunciation "yen" is standard in English.

Walter Henry Medhurst , who had neither been to Japan nor met any Japanese, having consulted mainly a Japanese-Dutch dictionary, spelled some "e"s as "ye" in his An English and Japanese, and Japanese and English Vocabulary Hepburn revised most of "ye"s to "e" in the 3rd edition [9] in order to mirror the contemporary pronunciation, except "yen". In the 19th century, silver Spanish dollar coins were common throughout Southeast Asia , the China coast, and Japan. These coins had been introduced through Manila over a period of two hundred and fifty years, arriving on ships from Acapulco in Mexico.

These ships were known as the Manila galleons. Until the 19th century, these silver dollar coins were actual Spanish dollars minted in the new world , mostly at Mexico City.

But from the s, they were increasingly replaced by silver dollars of the new Latin American republics. In the later half of the 19th century, some local coins in the region were made in the resemblance of the Mexican peso. The first of these local silver coins was the Hong Kong silver dollar coin that was minted in Hong Kong between the years and The Chinese were slow to accept unfamiliar coinage and preferred the familiar Mexican dollars, and so the Hong Kong government ceased minting these coins and sold the mint machinery to Japan.

The Japanese then decided to adopt a silver dollar coinage under the name of 'yen', meaning 'a round object'. The yen was officially adopted by the Meiji government in an Act signed on June 27, The yen was therefore basically a dollar unit, like all dollars, descended from the Spanish Pieces of eight , and up until the year , all the dollars in the world had more or less the same value. The yen replaced Tokugawa coinage , a complex monetary system of the Edo period based on the mon.

The yen was legally defined as 0. The same amount of silver is worth about modern yen, [13] while the same amount of gold is worth about yen. Following the silver devaluation of , the yen devalued against the U.

The sen and the rin were eventually taken out of circulation at the end of No true exchange rate existed for the yen between December 7, , and April 25, ; wartime inflation reduced the yen to a fraction of its pre-war value. After a period of instability, on April 25, , the U. By , the yen had become undervalued. Japanese exports were costing too little in international markets, and imports from abroad were costing the Japanese too much.

The belief that the yen, and several other major currencies, were undervalued motivated the United States' actions in Following the United States' measures to devalue the dollar in the summer of , the Japanese government agreed to a new, fixed exchange rate as part of the Smithsonian Agreement , signed at the end of the year.

However, the new fixed rates of the Smithsonian Agreement were difficult to maintain in the face of supply and demand pressures in the foreign-exchange market. In early , the rates were abandoned, and the major nations of the world allowed their currencies to float.

In the s, Japanese government and business people were very concerned that a rise in the value of the yen would hurt export growth by making Japanese products less competitive and would damage the industrial base. The government therefore continued to intervene heavily in foreign-exchange marketing buying or selling dollars , even after the decision to allow the yen to float. During the first half of the s, the yen failed to rise in value even though current account surpluses returned and grew quickly.

The rise in the current account surplus generated stronger demand for yen in foreign-exchange markets, but this trade-related demand for yen was offset by other factors. A wide differential in interest rates , with United States interest rates much higher than those in Japan, and the continuing moves to deregulate the international flow of capital , led to a large net outflow of capital from Japan.

This capital flow increased the supply of yen in foreign-exchange markets, as Japanese investors changed their yen for other currencies mainly dollars to invest overseas. This kept the yen weak relative to the dollar and fostered the rapid rise in the Japanese trade surplus that took place in the s. In , a dramatic change began. Finance officials from major nations signed an agreement the Plaza Accord affirming that the dollar was overvalued and, therefore, the yen undervalued.

This agreement, and shifting supply and demand pressures in the markets, led to a rapid rise in the value of the yen. In April , the yen hit a peak of under 80 yen per dollar, temporarily making Japan's economy nearly the size of the US.

However, this trend of depreciation reversed after the global economic crisis of Other major currencies, except the Swiss franc , have been declining relative to the yen. The amount of purchases is so large that it is expected to double the money supply. But this move has sparked concerns that the authorities in Japan are deliberately devaluing the yen in order to boost exports.

Coins were introduced in There were silver 5-, , and sen and 1-yen, and gold 2-, 5-, and yen. Cupronickel 5-sen coins were introduced in In , cupro-nickel sen coins were introduced.

Production of silver coins ceased in , after which a variety of base metals were used to produce 1-, 5- and sen coins during the Second World War. Clay 5- and sen coins were produced in , but not issued for circulation.

After the war, brass sen, 1- and 5-yen were introduced between and I hope it answers your questions!: From the very beginning, Matt and I knew that we wanted all of our friends and family to stay in the same place if possible. We wanted to wake up and eat a leisurely breakfast with them. We wanted to pass by them and say hello. If we were going to bring all of our nearest and dearest to the same place for a weekend, we wanted it to feel more like a reunion than a wedding.

This information gave us a more accurate idea of how many people to expect. Unfortunately, we couldn't find the perfect-sized place. We either found places that were too big or too small. Simultaneously, we found out that Matt's family wanted to stay at a place that was a little less rustic. Luckily, we found an inexpensive place, which wasn't easy to do.

We intentionally had to look outside the city to find something reasonable. Estes Park, CO, is a mecca of expensive weddings. To find the "perfect place," we had to make compromises. Also, the cabins were rustic. However, the innkeepers were absolutely amazing and the price was right. We certainly compromised some on the aesthetics of our wedding, but we realized that community, connection, and fun were more important to us than the aesthetics.

We then came up with a price per night for our friends that seemed fair: In the end, we were able to completely fill the place and have money left over that we used to pay the innkeepers to help us during the reception. If we had had more money to spend on our wedding, we wouldn't have put that money toward centerpieces or a fancier cake; we would have completely paid for our guests' accommodations.

Good luck with your search! Securing the right location was one of the most stressful pieces of our entire process. My fiance and I are in the process of planning our wedding, and one of the biggest mental roadblocks for me has been the ceremony. Neither of us want it to be particularly religious and we want it to reflect our personalities, but we just haven't figured out how we want to do it.

I love everything about your ceremony. Actually, I love everything about your wedding. Thank you so much for sharing this, and I hope to use some of your ideas to personalize our wedding. It must be a teaching thing; I'm a teacher too and I took the same approach as you!

Let's hear it for design-down planning! I was beginning to think I was the only one who didn't care about chair decore, chocolate fountains and plastic cake toppers.

It all sounds idyllic and wonderful. I'm just curious to know what your plans were in case of rain. We are planning as low budget a wedding as possible, but we need to rent a tent, tables, chairs, etc. I'd love to hear from you. Thank you so much! I'm knee deep in trying to pull off a similar wedding and am so excited to hear how well yours went and that it is possible and even enjoyable to plan an intimate, memorable wedding on a shoestring budget! May I ask how you did the invites?

You are an inspiration. I had some nebulous thoughts in my mind about what I wanted but your clear thinking and planning and excellent ideas means that my wedding might become somewhat of a clone of yours- but how could that be a bad thing? I am also concerned about what could be done in case of rain, but I think I'll take the risk. Thanks for reminding us about what is really important.

I'm so happy to see that this was done by someone else. My fiance and I are getting married in 6. I've had several arguements with family about who to invited, where to have it, what to eat and we've even been called arrogant- funny since we're paying and it's our wedding! So far we're getting away cheap because we're pooling our resources. My fiance's mother has tons of friends and among them is a caterer, photographer, bartender, and JP- all owe her favors.

Thanks for writing all of your story, it really makes me feel sorry for those who spend thousands and psyched for us! I think this wedding was wonderful and perfect for you, but I am saddened by what often felt like a tone of judgment towards people who had different, more traditional wedding styles.

Perhaps that is not how you meant it to come across, as it doesn't seem consistent with your stated values. Thank you for sharing how you planned such a beautiful celebration of your love and committment, centered on values that were important to you. My fiance and I are hoping to do the same. I particularly am interested in how you were able to create the type of experience you did during the reception. I want to also have dancing, games, swimming, and other activities during that time without having to faciliate them.

In reading your post, it seems your guests freely floated to whatever activity they felt drawn to. How did that come about throughout the day? Did you make an announcement? Did you have individuals pull different guests into different directions? I came upon your blog and really, really appreciate your spirit, determination, and the willpower it must have taken to resist falling into all the infamous wedding "traps".

That said, when I read your take on the traditional ceremony it left me feeling a little put out. However, my fiancee and I were both raised by our very loving church communities and neither of us can imagine our wedding without the rituals, the texts, and the church family that have been so important in both our lives. My hope is that our friends will be understanding enough to realize that the presence of a minister, the words of scripture, and all that "routine" church talk, for us is anything but meaningless.

Thank you for making this blog! I have never, ever been one to dreamily leaf through wedding magazines in fact they kind of make me nauseous and I would love to do a wedding similar to the way you did yours. Thank you for all the wonderful ideas and references! My fiance and I knew what we wanted from the get go Everyone has either knocked us for it or tried to convince us otherwise. Anyways, after everyone I talked to, everthing I've read or seen on t.

THIS is the most inspirational piece i have read. I'm so glad I'm not the only one who looks at my wedding this way. Thank you soo much for posting this. You saved me from being sucked into typical wedding chaos. Me and my fiance have only been engaged for a month and a half and I'm already feeling extremely overwhelmed. Like the other comments, I have already read many websites, bought many magazines, and talked to a lot of people. I really just want to thank you for posting this.

Your ideas are awesome!! Thank you for such an amazing site! I'm truly amazed at your determination and wisdom. My fiance and I are in the process of getting married, there are a lot of worries and unanswered questions in our heads. However, I'm so glad I've come upon your site, which has inspired and reminded me what's the most important of a wedding. It takes so much courage to be different and to do things that are not in the norm, but your story has truly given me the courage to do what's important to us.

Thanks again for your amazing site! Thank you is all I can say. I'm talking to my father tonight. But I really hate paying a lot for things I can make myself an better, or when there are other solutions if one's willing to let go of stereotypes.

I like to think of the reception as a huge party and I've always wanted to throw one. So it's gonna be so much fun actually sitting down and starting planning. Thanx the advice, I'll head them all! Even wrote a post about them What an amazing blog.

I just read it from start to finish. I'm going to pass it along to all of my couples I'm a wedding officiant. I love that you planned and executed the entire event according to your vision and values. It's clear your married life started out just the way you envisioned it and I predict a long, happy and creative life together.

Thanks for sharing your wonderful adventure! Thank you for this. I am not even sure how I found it, but fate must be leading the way! Your story is so inspirational and I will keep it in mind as I plan the rest of my life with my man. Your words are exactly what mine and my fiancee's vision is. When talking about the formality of a wedding I had cringed my nose and my girlfriend said "what is it that you really want" From that moment on we were set to have our ceremony and reception as laid back as we were and anyone who didn't like it could leave.

Thank you for keeping us inspired to have the wedding we want Wow, thank you so much for posting this. I have been engaged for eight months now and haven't started planning the wedding yet because I'm absolutely overwhelmed by the idea of invitations, flowers, decorations, standing in front of so many people Thanks so much for posting this and reminding me of the things that actually matter.

Comment - Thank you so much!! I will be entirely grateful to you for writing this. I felt really really insecure that our wedding wouldn't match up - wouldn't be as important. But you helped me realize what actually is important - is it things or is it connections with those around you. So, thank you so much!! I am now looking forward to creating this wedding right. You guys are my new heroes.

And so true; at the end, you are married, and that is the important part. Thanks for the voice of sanity!! I just read your wedding story and absolutely love it. I sent a copy to my fiance. It is very grounding. We are just starting to plan our picnic wedding at our home in less than 2 months!!!

We have a ten month old boy too, so this is going to be an adventure. With the love and support of friends and family it's going to be perfect!! And thank you thank you for sharing your process, it's helping to jump start ours!! I love the make it personal line. That means more to me then the food and I will do my best to stop looking at wedding porn.

I just need to say, I love what you did with your wedding! More people need to think like this! Weddings are about joining together, not having the biggest and shiniest of whatever you see!

We spent just over dollars hooray for DIY!! You guys had so many great and inpsiring ideas! Makes me wish I was planning my wedding!

Hopefully more people will take your advice and return to the community that a wedding once was. Thank you for sharing this. I am inspired to reclaim my wedding, and I sincerely appreciate your words of wisdom. Just want to say thank you for this post. I showed it to my fiance a couple months ago and then we sat down and made our "wedding pillars.

Let me add to the shower of thanks. I was just about to sign a contract with a caterer we can't afford and feeling all knotted and guilted up inside. I don't know what we're going to do instead. It's nearly midnight and my arms are sore from reading so much wedding porn. But this post has reminded me what I wanted me wedding to be about and, most importantly, my marriage.

What a great story and blog! I am the maid of honor in my best friends wedding and think your vision for your wedding was great. When it's my turn I hope to use your posts as a reminder of what can be done- rather then what everybody does. On the brink of throwing in the towel and eloping, I stumbled across your blog. It's a relief to know we're not alone in wanting our wedding to be more about our relationship and connections with others than Thanks for smacking me back down to earth.

Someone from the Knot shared this link with me and I love your story! Thanks for the great advice on making your wedding about relationships instead of a show! My fiance and i have to pay for our wedding ourselves yikes! But we don't really like traditional weddings we think they're really boring so yours sounded like so much fun.

The only thing is that we want to do a destination wedding and a party for anyone who cant go. I'm not so sure we can make it dollars but if we could be somewhere around that it would be great if you have any advice pleeeeease let me know thanks so much!!

Like everyone has said, thank you! I hope you realize what an inspiration you are to everyone especially fellow wedding planners on a budget. We've only just begun planning and we've hit a few road bumps along the way, and I've already found myself reminding me of why we're actually doing this to begin with. You are so right. Planning can be stressful enough without family getting involved and financial constraints, but your story proves that you can overcome all of that.

You've given me the confidence I needed for the few months of planning. Thank you again, and I wish you and your marriage all the success in life! I so enjoyed reading this account of a budget wedding. Now I have the opportunity to get married again. My husband s converting to judaism and so we will be married jewishly.

This wedding will be even more budget friendly than I have done before. I wilo be making my own dress.. The ceremony and reception will be at the synagogue, and the invitations will be photocopies or emails. Thanks for the help gained reading your story.

What can I say that hasn't been said? We have a month and a week or two to plan our potluck DIY wedding, but I know we are up to it! We were already planning to do many of the things that you had recommended, such as creating a flickr group so that guests could upload their pictures of the event.

Ours will be at a picnic site called Old Church at a regional park in California. Thanks for your clarity, inspiration, and helpful encouragement! You are my new hero!! I am newly engaged and just starting the ideas and inspiration stage of the wedding planning process.

I look forward to reading your blog and gaining great insight into how to make our wedding a special day on a very tight budget! Thank you so much for giving me hope!! I have stopped reading at Sunshine Mountain because I have to go somewhere. But I am already inspired!!! I'll finish reading later and maybe post again! Sara, I loved your blog! I'm getting married in a year and I have found that wedding planning can be very stressful.

Thanks to your blog I no longer feel that way. My fiance and I are having to pay for our own wedding, which is great because we can't go crazy with spending. So when I came across your blog I was in amazement that you and your husband were able to pull of a budget friendly wedding. You had so many wonderful ideas on your wedding blog that I will defiantly take into consideration. I think I'm going to recruit a lot of my family members and friends to help me out with the wedding.

Everyone I know is pretty creative. I'm a very crafty person so I plan on making all the wedding favors, wedding programs, boutonnieres, decorations, wedding invites, wedding pillow, etc. I even might have my finance and I grow our own flowers for the wedding. The more things that I can make by hand for our wedding, the more money my fiance and I will be saving.

Which I believe to be true! For our wedding I'm trying to keep the cost down. I'm going to start a wedding binder. I don't want a huge expensive wedding bill in the end. My fiance and I have created two separate wedding accounts. I live in a small town with family near by. For our wedding reception it has to be indoors. Where I live it gets windy and cold at night. We also get a lot of fog. So I can't have my older guest at the wedding freezing their butts off in the summer.

I've found a nice hall for my fiance and I to have our reception at. In fact it's way under a thousand dollars. It's so affordable for us! Not only that, I've even located a local restaurant that caters too.

Their prices are also inexpensive and so affordable. I don't plan on getting a fancy wedding cake from a bakery. I might just get myself a store bought wedding cake. My moms friend owns a dress shop and she can get me a great deal on a simple wedding dress.

You're blog has inspired me to want a beautiful wedding on simple budget. I'm so excited now to plan my wedding knowing I can do it on a budget. I've got so many wonderful ideas and I can't wait to use them.

I've even found things that I already own that I plan on using at my wedding. That excites me too! I do think I can out beat the wedding industry by having a nice wedding of my dreams without having to spend huge amounts of dollars. Thank you for giving me hope and allowing me to not feel so stressful! I love the feel of this blog, although it seems to convey that if you want the white lace and roses that you are somehow untrue to the value of marriage or something. As the mom planning most of this wedding, I am somewhat bound by my daughter's choice of church and amount of guests.

Our biggest problem with a reception venue was one where we could do our own food much of it donated by friends. My daughter wants the silk and lace version. She's not unreasonable, but we both wanted it classic and elegant, as well as friendly and fun. I am naive enough to believe we can do it. The church has no reception hall, so you see what that cost us. Then I scolded myself for being so judgemental.

How could I slip into this? The groom's mom works full time, father isn't well, and she is willing to make a homemade meal for a huge crowd of people she doesn't even know sounds like the reception, doesn't it? How sweeeet of her, and I hope we can all sit around and laugh. Sarah, Your wedding quilt is beautiful.

I've decided to make one for my wedding. I'm doing it as a semester long school project. I'm so excited to immerse myself into the world of quilting. I can't wait for my classmates to see this quilt I make. I myself would like my fiance and I to display this quilt at our wedding.

I think it will be beautiful project that him and I will cherish forever! I completely stumbled upon your blog months ago when I was beginning on planning our wedding. I don't even remember how I found it. Probably one of my random frantic searches for ideas on how to have a "budget" wedding. When I starting reading it was like a breath of fresh air. I finally thought "Oh my gosh, I can do this. Whenever I get in a funk I just read your blog and it's totally inspiring!

If I married the man I wanted to before he passed away, this is what our wedding would've been like. I feel the love you have for each other through this awesome story. This blog is great. Our budget is a bit larger, but I still want to have a natural feel to it.

I am Buddhist and my fiance is not religious at all. I want an outdoor ceremony that is peaceful and focused on our commitment to each other. I don't want some person I barely know reading a chosen script of meaningless vows. I want everyone involved! I wish I could have a small guest list but my mothers side of the family is fairy large and every Sunday is like a reunion to us so I am very close to all of my cousins, aunts, uncles, ect. Right now we are on the search for an outside venue by a lake or pond.

That would be perfect. Thank you for this blog. I will visit this blog often! It made me feel so much better about me wanting to create my own ceremony from scratch!

Early this Saturday morning I woke up just in a panic - there is a wedding show in my community today, I know I need to go, my Mom and Dad want to go, but I am just so uncomfortable with it.

Now I know why I am uncomfortable - because it is not me and your post help me understand that. We will go to the wedding show but now I am relax a bit because I know a beautiful day is coming without the Wedding Industrial Complex. Although your wedding production was initially motivated by budget at least in part what you ended up with was, in my humble opinion, a wedding day celebration as it's supposed to be. I've been to more weddings than I can count as an entertainer and the best ones had only partial elements of what you've designed here.

Your blog should be required reading for everyone planning their wedding. I am planning a similar "budget" wedding with a backyard style. Having the hardest time finding a venue for the same reasons you stated. This article hit home for me so much and put a lot into perspective.

I am a wedding photographer who attends VERY expensive weddings every saturday, however it is not at all what I want. Although I am going to recommend this blog to all the brides I work with because even those planning a 20k wedding can still benefit from SO MUCH of the advice here.

Yes its great for DIY budget weddings, but applies to so much more. Thanks for writing it and good luck for your very bright future. Both of u guys ideas were awsome. Im planning my wedding for this comming up february and im freeking out about were to start. And after reading about ya its been so easy. I just wanted to say thanks and hope life treats you both well. Wishes to you both. So great to read about a wedding designed out of love and the event!

We did our wedding in very much the same fashion, we spent a little more - we splurged on a live band We had the same approach and many of the same features - his father married us and wrote our vows on my parents' property our guests also stood in a semi-circle around us , we made the food TX BBQ , my mom made my dresses and my husband's shirt decorated with his family crest that we digitally redrew from a sad, bitmapped web image , a homebrewing friend brewed special kegs for the reception, I designed the invites and worked at a sign shop so my boss' gift was printing everything for my wedding for free, and instead of a unity candle we set off fireworks, our guest take-home gifts were jars of jelly we made from peaches and wild grapes on my parents' property.

I love to hear you say you approached planning it as a reunion, which was the philosophy we took in planning our wedding as well.

I can't recommend that thought process enough - it kept us focused on love and family, plus we would get so excited to see a group of such cherished people every time we sat down to work out plans. It was a lot of work, but very little fuss over the little details that sometimes can cause quite a stir in the stress of it all.

It was such a wonderful day, even years later, we'll sit and remember the fun I discovered your blog through another blog, The Broke-Ass Bride, and I really feel that you've reminded me of what I need to remember when I start planning a wedding ceremony with my husband.

We're planning on doing a ceremony after purchasing a home later this year, and honestly, we don't know where to start exactly concerning the venue. Thanks for keeping up your blog! I adore everything you two did! What a wonderfully emotive and authentic experience! Wishing you so much happiness in your lives together! Thanks so much for this summary! I was reading some of the comments on here and had a question.

Why in the hell would anyone that can afford a big elaborate wedding be reading a blog about a DIY wedding and commenting negatively about the tone of the blog? Why bring negative energy to someone that is just telling their story and their reasoning for conducting the wedding the way they did?

I think that a little self-reflection is needed for these individuals. Don't let your guilt rain on someone's parade.

As for the blog, love all the ideas! My fiance and I are going to be conducting a similar budget wedding after trying to plan a show and realizing that we probably would be separated before we even got to the wedding day.

We will be referencing your blog quite often I am sure! Thanks for not being a bore! What a great blog. My wife and I laughed and wish we could have been there to enjoy what seemed like a great wedding event.

I really enjoyed reading this story, it is very inspiring. However, I just wonder how much the guests had to pay to attend the wedding with both families from out of state. My finance and I decided to get married where we grew up because we would be the only ones traveling, not the whole guest list.

I've attended weddings where it has cost me an arm and a leg, I didn't want to do that to our guests. We could have saved money by having the wedding where we currently reside, but decided to spend more money ourselves so our guests didn't have to be as burdened.

I wonder if there are others out there who made the same decision we did? I am very grateful that this blog has reminded me to look at the big picutre. Thank you, thank you, thank you for this blog. This is exactly what I think a wedding should be about. I really needed to see this, and greatly appreciate the effort you put into your vision.